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Ecosystems Restoration and Sustainability: Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem services are attributes and outputs of ecosystems that create value for human users. These services are derived from ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, climate regulation, and maintenance of biodiversity. For example, forests stabilize soils, filter water, and sequester carbon. Insects pollinate orchards and crops, and birds and bats pollinate flowers, trees, and shrubs. Squirrels help to regenerate forests by dispersing and burying nuts. And scavengers and bacteria aid in the decomposition of wastes. Ecosystems also provide marketable goods like seafood, timber, and natural fruits and grains.



Krauss, K.W., Lovelock, C.E., McKee, K.L., López-Hoffman, L., Ewe, S.M.L., and Sousa, W.P., 2008, Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: A review: Aquatic Botany, v. 89, n. 2, p. 105-127,

Mangroves have a global distribution within coastal tropical and subtropical climates, and have even expanded to some temperate locales. Where they do occur, mangroves provide a plethora of goods and services, ranging from coastal protection from storms and erosion to direct income for human societies.

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