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Climate Change and Adaptation: Forest Ecosystems

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Krauss, K.W., and Whitbeck, J.L., 2012, Soil greenhouse gas fluxes during wetland forest retreat along the Lower Savannah River, Georgia (USA): Wetlands, v. 32, n. 1, p. 73-81, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13157-011-0246-8

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands (tidal swamps) are periodically affected by salinity intrusion at seaward transitions with marsh, which, along with altered hydrology, may affect the balance of gaseous carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses from soils. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from healthy, moderately degraded, and degraded tidal swamp soils undergoing sea-level-rise-induced retreat along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA.

 

Doyle, T.W., O’Neil, C.P., Melder, Marcus P.V., From, A.S., and Palta, M.M., 2007, Tidal freshwater swamps of the southeastern United States: Effects of land use, hurricanes, sea-level rise, and climate change, IN, Conner, W.H., Doyle, T.W., and Krauss, K.W., eds., Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands of the Southeastern United States: Springer, The Netherlands, p. 1-28, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5095-4_1

Tidal freshwater wetlands are found worldwide at the outlets of coastal rivers with low gradient and low topographic relief at or near sea level. In the United States, they commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain ecoregion along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico coast stretching from Maryland to Texas. These wetlands include both marsh and forest cover at or above mean sea level within the local tide range but also receive sufficient freshwater flows to generally keep surface water salinities less than 0.5 parts per thousand.

 

Doyle, T.W., Conner, W.H., Ratard, M., and Inabinette, L.W., 2007, Assessing the impact of tidal flooding and salinity on long-term growth of baldcypress under changing climate and riverflow, IN, Conner, W.H., Doyle, T.W., and Krauss, K.W., eds., Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands of the Southeastern United States: Springer, The Netherlands, p. 411-445, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5095-4_15

Successful restoration of coastal wetlands depends mostly on the proper understanding of the physical environment and the ecological requirements and tolerances of eligible and expected biota, in situ or introduced. Tidal freshwater forested wetlands present a challenging coastal habitat that undergoes daily, seasonal, decadal, and even millennial cycles of environmental change that dictate the distribution and migration of this forest type over time and space.


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