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Climate Change and Adaptation: Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem services are attributes and outputs of ecosystems that create value for human users. These services are derived from ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, climate regulation, and maintenance of biodiversity. For example, forests stabilize soils, filter water, and sequester carbon. Insects pollinate orchards and crops, and birds and bats pollinate flowers, trees, and shrubs. Squirrels help to regenerate forests by dispersing and burying nuts. And scavengers and bacteria aid in the decomposition of wastes. Ecosystems also provide marketable goods like seafood, timber, and natural fruits and grains.

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